Leaf mustard, characterized by its purple/red/green leaves with a green/white midrib, is known for its thick, tender, and spicy leaves with a unique taste and flavor. There were only a few studies reported on leaf mustard for its morphological and biochemical traits from Korea. A total of 355 leaf mustard accessions stored at the GenBank of the National Agrobiodiversity Center were evaluated for 25 agro-morphological traits and seven intact glucosinolates (GSLs). The accessions showed a wide variation in terms of most of the traits. The quantitative agro-morphological traits varied from 16.0 (leaf length) to 48.7% (petiole width) of the coefficient of variation (CV). The highest variation was observed in glucoiberin (299.5%, CV), while the total GSL showed a CV of 66.1%. Sinigrin, followed by gluconapin and gluconasturtiin, was the most abundant GSL, accounting for as high as 75% of the total GSLs, while glucobrassicanapin and glucoiberin were the least abundant, contributing 0.7% and 0.1% on average, respectively. Sinigrin had a positive significant correlation with all GSLs but gluconasturtiin, while glucobarbarin and gluconasturtiin were highly positively correlated to each other, but least correlated with other GSLs. The leaf length was negatively correlated with sinigrin and glucoiberin. The width of the petiole showed a positive correlation with gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, and glucobrassicin, while the length of the petiole had a negative correlation with sinigrin, glucobrassicanapin, glucoiberin, glucobrassicin, and the total GSLs. A higher width of the midrib was associated with higher contents of gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, and glucobrassicin. A PCA analysis based on the agro-morphological traits showed that the first and second principal components accounted for 65.2% of the overall variability. Accessions that form a head tend to exhibit a longer leaf length, a larger plant weight, a thicker midrib, and higher widths of the midrib, petiole, and leaf. The GSLs showed inconsistent inter-and intra-leaf variation. Accessions that identified for various traits in their performance, such as, for example, Yeosu66 and IT259487 (highest total glucosinolates) and IT228984 (highest plant weight), would be promising lines for developing new varieties.
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